Global Power Law & Policy

Legal and Policy Developments Affecting the Global Power Industry.

 

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Energy and Infrastructure
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K&L Gates’ Energy Storage Handbook
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2nd Annual Energy Storage Conference
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K&L Gates Blockchain Energizer – Volume 39
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Making Room for Electric Storage: RTOs/ISOs Propose Changes to Their Market Rules to Comply with FERC Order 841
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RENEWABLE ENERGY: Leveraging the Opportunity Zones Tax Incentive to Improve Returns on Renewables, Storage Plus, and Standalone Storage
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K&L Gates Blockchain Energizer – Volume 38
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Minding the Gap: FERC Issues Proposed Rule To Address Treatment of Income Taxes Following Change in Tax Rates
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US Offshore Wind Market Handbook Helps Investors Navigate Technical and Regulatory Issues
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K&L Gates Links with Global Legal Blockchain Consortium

Energy and Infrastructure

Leveraging the Opportunity Zones Tax Incentive to Improve Returns on Development and Operations in The Oil and Gas and Power Industries

By Elizabeth C. Crouse, Mary Burke Baker, and Sandra E. Safro

A new federal tax incentive enacted in the 2017 tax reform package may provide a boost to many new facilities, repowering projects, and storage facilities. Qualified equipment could include a variety of energy and materials storage equipment, refining equipment, generating equipment, and extraction equipment.

The Qualified Opportunity Zones (“QOZ”) incentive provides attractive tax benefits for investors with capital gains to invest in property and businesses located in geographic areas that are designated as QOZ. Recently released regulations provide significant clarity and highlight how valuable the QOZ incentive can be for qualified investments. See our October 23 alert for a discussion of how the proposed regulations answer many important questions that provide the certainty investors, developers, and entrepreneurs in the energy and infrastructure industries need to proceed with QOZ investments and projects.

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K&L Gates’ Energy Storage Handbook

Version 3.0 Now Available!

As a courtesy to our clients and friends, the K&L Gates Power Practice has updated the popular resource for you – the Energy Storage Handbook.

Designed as a basic primer on what energy storage is, how it is regulated and what sorts of issues are encountered when such projects are financed and developed, the Handbook is intended to highlight the most common regulatory and developmental issues faced by our clients and the industries we serve.

New in Version 3.0

To view Version 3.0 of the Energy Storage Handbook, please click here.

2nd Annual Energy Storage Conference

Market Trends, Opportunities, and Developments for Global Storage Projects

Energy Storage Handbook Now Available Online!

We thank you for joining us at the 2nd Annual Energy Storage Conference. A special thank you to our co-sponsors, the Energy Storage Association and the Edison Electric Institute. We hope you enjoyed the day’s discussions.

If you were unable to join us this year, we encourage you to check out the newest edition (Version 3.0) of our K&L Gates Energy Storage Handbook, available here.

We look forward to having you join us again in the future.

K&L Gates Blockchain Energizer – Volume 39

There is a lot of buzz around blockchain technology and its potential to revolutionize a wide range of industries from finance and health care to real estate and supply chain management. Many institutions and companies are forming partnerships to explore how blockchain ledgers and smart contracts can be deployed to manage and share data, create transactional efficiencies, and reduce costs.

Across the energy industry, market participants have formed consortiums, and launched pilot programs testing blockchain-based use cases that could transform energy markets. State regulators, too, are engaging the industry on blockchain’s potential. Every other week, the K&L Gates’ Blockchain Energizer will highlight emerging issues or stories relating to the use of blockchain technology in the energy space. To subscribe to the Blockchain Energizer newsletter, please click here.

IN THIS ISSUE

  • KEPCO Plans to Develop an “Open Energy Community” via a Blockchain-based “Future Micro Grid.”
  • Shell and Other Oil Companies Test Blockchain-based Crude Oil Trading on Vakt.
  • Energy Web Foundation Collaborates With Wirepas and Siemens.

To view more information on theses topics in Volume 39 of the Blockchain Energizer, click here.

Making Room for Electric Storage: RTOs/ISOs Propose Changes to Their Market Rules to Comply with FERC Order 841

By Abraham F. Johns, William M. Keyser, and Toks A. Arowojolu

On December 3, 2018, the Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and Independent System Operators (ISOs) filed proposed market rule changes to provide energy storage resources with greater opportunities to participate in the wholesale markets as required by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order No. 841. These widely anticipated FERC filings will likely provide the framework for how energy storage resources will be developed and used in the coming years.

In February 2018, FERC released Order No. 841, which requires each regional grid operator to revise its tariff to establish a participation model that allows energy storage resources to participate in the organized wholesale markets and sell the relevant products offered by each market. K&L Gates covered the details of this Order in a blog post and in the Energy Storage Handbook.

FERC set a deadline for each RTO/ISO to submit a compliance filing including tariff revisions by December 3, 2018. We have provided links to the compliance filings for each RTO/ISO below. The deadline for public comments on the filings is December 24, 2018 by 5 p.m. Each RTO/ISO has until December 3, 2019 to implement the changes. Considering the holiday season, some commenters may request an extension on this comment deadline. We will continue to monitor the development of these proceedings.

RENEWABLE ENERGY: Leveraging the Opportunity Zones Tax Incentive to Improve Returns on Renewables, Storage Plus, and Standalone Storage

By Elizabeth C. Crouse and Mary Burke Baker                     

Federal and state tax credits for renewable energy facilities are winding down, but a new federal tax incentive enacted in tax reform may provide a boost to many new installations, repowering projects, and storage facilities. The Qualified Opportunity Zones (“QOZ”) incentive provides attractive tax benefits for investors with capital gains that, unlike other federal incentive programs such as the New Markets Tax Credit and Historic Rehabilitation Tax Credit, can be combined with the Investment Tax Credit (“ITC”) and Production Tax Credit (“PTC”) for facilities located in geographic areas that are designated as QOZ. Further, QOZ benefits will remain in place for a significant period after the ITC and PTC have become less valuable or expired. Recently released regulations provide significant clarity and highlight how valuable the QOZ incentive can be for qualified investments. See our October 23 alert for a discussion of how the regulations make the QOZ incentive even more interesting.

To view the full alert on K&L Gates HUB, click here.

K&L Gates Blockchain Energizer – Volume 38

By Buck B. Endemann, Benjamin L. Tejblum, and Daniel S. Cohen

There is a lot of buzz around blockchain technology and its potential to revolutionize a wide range of industries from finance and health care to real estate and supply chain management. Many institutions and companies are forming partnerships to explore how blockchain ledgers and smart contracts can be deployed to manage and share data, create transactional efficiencies, and reduce costs.

While virtual currencies and blockchain technology in the financial services industry have been the subject of significant debate and discussion, blockchain applications that could transform the energy industry have received comparatively less attention. Every other week, the K&L Gates’ Blockchain Energizer will highlight emerging issues or stories relating to the use of blockchain technology in the energy space. To subscribe to the Blockchain Energizer newsletter, please click here.

IN THIS ISSUE

  • KEPCO Announces Exploration of Blockchain-Based Solar Trading Platform.
  • SP Group Using Blockchain to Power REC Trading Platform in Singapore.
  • Energy Web Foundation Unveils an Electric Vehicle Charging Toolkit for EW Origin.

To view more information on theses topics in Volume 38 of the Blockchain Energizer, click here.

Minding the Gap: FERC Issues Proposed Rule To Address Treatment of Income Taxes Following Change in Tax Rates

By Abraham F. Johns, Toks A. Arowojolu, William M. Keyser, Eric E. Freedman, David P.  Hattery, and Sandra E. Safro

On November 15, 2018, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) announced two major policy developments on the treatment of Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes (“ADIT”) in light of the recent reduction of the federal income tax rate in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. The proposed developments are intended to benefit utility customers by providing for a fair return of the tax savings created by the new law. First, FERC issued a Policy Statement that outlines FERC’s policy on the treatment of ADIT for both accounting and ratemaking purposes for public utilities, natural gas pipelines and oil pipelines in light of the recent reduction in income taxes. Second, in a notice of proposed rulemaking (“NOPR”), FERC proposes to require all public utility transmission providers to revise their transmission rates to account for the reduction in income taxes caused by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.

Policy Statement: Treatment of ADIT in Light of the Tax Rate Reduction

The Policy Statement, titled “Accounting and Ratemaking Treatment of Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes and Treatment Following the Sale or Retirement of Assets,” provides guidance on two questions FERC posed in its March 15, 2018, Notice of Inquiry (“NOI”).

First, FERC provides details on the specific accounts that public utilities and natural gas pipelines should use to record amortization of excess and deficient ADIT. FERC also explains how oil pipelines should treat deferred tax balances and provides that, for ratemaking purposes, FERC will continue the practice of amortization and removal of excess or deficient ADIT by reducing the returned allowed prior to grossing up for income taxes.

Second, FERC provides guidance on how public utilities, natural gas pipelines and oil pipelines should address excess and/or deficient ADIT that is recorded on their books after December 31, 2017, as a result of the sale or retirement of assets. The Policy Statement explains that in the case of a public utility or natural gas pipeline that continues to have an income tax allowance, any excess or deficient ADIT associated with an asset must continue to be amortized in rates even after the sale or retirement of that asset. If the rate treatment of the excess or deficient ADIT is disallowed, then the amounts should be written off in the year of the disallowance. In line with the existing Uniform System of Accounting for oil pipelines, FERC notes that for accounting purposes an oil pipeline’s ADIT balance will be reduced immediately by the full amount of the excess or deficient tax reserve. For ratemaking purposes, an oil pipeline would maintain the excess or deficient ADIT in the ADIT account and would continue to amortize those amounts when determining its income tax allowance as part of the ratemaking process after the assets are sold or retired.

The Policy Statement also states that, to provide greater transparency, public utilities, natural gas pipelines and oil pipelines should provide additional information regarding ADIT in their annual financial filings.

NOPR: Closing the Gap in Transmission Formula Rates of Public Utilities

The proposed reforms are intended to ensure ratepayers receive the benefits of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and that transmission rates are just and reasonable following the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. As explained in the NOPR, the proposed changes fall into three categories and apply differently to transmission formula rates and stated rates. First, the NOPR proposes to require public utilities with formula rates to include a mechanism in their formula rate to deduct excess ADIT from or add deficient ADIT to their rate bases. Second, the NOPR proposes to require public utilities with transmission formula rates to include a mechanism in the formula rate that decreases or increases their income tax allowances by any amortized excess or deficient ADIT. The NOPR proposes to require that public utility transmission providers with stated rates to determine the excess or deficient ADIT caused by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act based on the ADIT amounts approved in their last rate case and return or recover this amount from ratepayers. Finally, the NOPR proposes to require all public utility transmission providers with transmission formula rates to include a new permanent worksheet into their transmission formula rate that will track information annually related to excess or deficient ADIT.

In his remarks at FERC’s monthly meeting, Chairman Chatterjee emphasized that the NOPR does not prescribe a one-size-fits-all approach to make the required adjustments. Rather, the NOPR recognizes that multiple approaches to modify rate base may be just and reasonable.

All three Commissioners strongly supported the NOPR. Commissioner LaFleur stated, “My goal is to get tax savings back into the hands of the customers as quickly as possible. That’s not yet done, but this is an important first step.”

Comments are due within 30 days of publication of the NOPR in the Federal Register. We will continue to monitor the developments of this proceeding.

US Offshore Wind Market Handbook Helps Investors Navigate Technical and Regulatory Issues

K&L Gates LLP, and Atkins, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group recently released an Offshore Wind Market Handbook to help guide investors through technical- and regulatory issues in the emerging US offshore wind market.

“Many large companies and institutional investors who have been successful with offshore wind projects in Europe are now poised to invest in the US,” said Andrew Thompson, Director, Offshore Wind at Atkins. “However, technical and regulatory issues unique to this market can be a barrier to developers for offshore wind energy projects. Our handbook provides practical information that addresses key matters.”

Regulatory issues include a discussion of the interplay between US federal jurisdiction and the various coastal states that have enacted laws and regulations encouraging offshore wind projects. Technical issues include turbine and foundation options and solutions, performance assurance strategies and a discussion of innovations in design and equipment that are particularly suited to US coastal waters.

“Essentially, technical and regulatory legal issues are intertwined such that project success requires a closely coordinated cross-discipline team,” said David Hattery, co-leader of K&L Gates’ power practice. “Together, K&L Gates and Atkins demonstrate a pool of knowledge and a depth of experience to draw on that gives us uniquely valuable insight into the legal and technical challenges facing the US offshore wind industry.”

The K&L Gates renewable energy practice combines European project experience with US regulatory and project development expertise. Atkins is a leading provider of full range technical and operational expertise in the energy industry, including engineering design and owner’s engineer services in the global offshore wind market. Together, K&L Gates and Atkins demonstrate market leadership on key issues and can help investors build a leading position in the US offshore wind market.

To read the full press release, click here.

K&L Gates Links with Global Legal Blockchain Consortium

Global law firm K&L Gates LLP has joined the Global Legal Blockchain Consortium (GLBC), an organization of legal and technology industry stakeholders focused on increasing the security, productivity, and interoperability of blockchain technology.

To date, more than 120 large companies, law firms, software companies, and law schools have joined the GLBC to help in developing standards and policies that govern the use of blockchain technology in the business of law. Specific issues on which the consortium focuses include data integrity, authenticity, security, and privacy for contracts and documents; interoperability between corporate legal departments and law firms; productivity improvements in the operation of legal departments and law firms; and augmentation of existing legal technology systems.

Judith Rinearson, a partner in K&L Gates’ New York and London offices and one of the co-chairs of the firm’s FinTech practice leading K&L Gates’ involvement with GLBC, said: “We have been very strategic in  how we have approached the enormous opportunities presented by the blockchain. Our membership in GLBC is a great fit in our overall strategy to harness the capabilities of the blockchain in order to benefit our clients.”

Last year, K&L Gates announced plans to implement its own private blockchain to assist in the exploration, creation, and implementation of smart contracts and other technology applications for future client use, a commitment that very few, if any, other major law firms have made.

Lawyers in the firm’s FinTech practice are part of a cross-disciplinary, global team focused on helping clients navigate regulatory, policy, and business issues surrounding the FinTech space, such as consumer financial services regulation, e-commerce regulation, fund formation, cybersecurity, finance, and intellectual property matters.

K&L Gates is a fully integrated global law firm with lawyers located across five continents. The firm represents leading multinational corporations, growth and middle-market companies, capital markets participants and entrepreneurs in every major industry group as well as public sector entities, educational institutions, philanthropic organizations and individuals. For more information about K&L Gates or its locations, practices and registrations, visit klgates.com.

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