Explore an overview of the annual certification requirements in each of the organized wholesale electricity markets operated by the independent system operators and regional transmission organizations (ISO/RTOs) in the United States. Each year, market participants must certify ongoing compliance through an officer’s certification stating that they meet requirements to participate in the market.Read More
According to the joint EPO-IEA report summarizing patent trends in the hydrogen economy (summarized here), technologies related to storage, distribution, and transportation of hydrogen are among the most critical challenges for large-scale deployment. Standardized infrastructure for hydrogen trade is essential to allow the market to function and flow.Read More
On 1 June 2023, the US Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the Low-Income Communities Bonus Credit Program (Program) established under Section 48(e) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code), pursuant to the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (IRA).1 The Program provides for increases in the amount of energy investment credits available under Code Section 48(a) (Section 48(e) Increase) to certain applicants by allocating environmental justice solar and wind capacity limitation (Capacity Limitation) to qualified facilities.Read More
On 22 May 2023, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued two orders approving stipulation and consent agreements that resolve enforcement investigations by FERC’s Office of Enforcement (FERC Enforcement) of two demand response providers, Leapfrog Power, Inc. (Leapfrog) and OhmConnect, Inc. (OhmConnect), regarding their participation in the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) market.1 FERC Enforcement’s focus in both cases concerned whether the companies violated a provision of the CAISO tariff requiring market participants to have a reasonable expectation that they could fulfill the bids they submitted.Read More
A Supplement to The H2 Handbook, United States
Risk in the hydrogen industry spans multiple areas, from feedstock and power supply to offtake and transportation. Understanding the regulatory, tax, and practical considerations of hydrogen projects, particularly green hydrogen, is essential for formulating an investment strategy for renewable hydrogen.Read More
Hydrogen production technology, according to the joint EPO-IEA report summarizing patent trends in the hydrogen economy (summarized here), accounts for the largest percentage of patenting activity since 2011 among the three primary stages of the hydrogen value chain (i.e., (i) production, (ii) storage, distribution, and transformation, and (iii) end-use industrial applications). Trends show a shift in hydrogen production from carbon-intensive methods to technologies that do not rely on fossil fuels. The bulk of recent increased patent activity is directed to electrolysis development, while patent activity related to production from biomass and waste has decreased.Read More
The European Patent Office (EPO) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) recently published a joint report summarizing innovation and patent trends within the hydrogen economy.1 The report is based on global patent activity since 20012 and is intended to help governments and businesses understand which parts of the hydrogen value chain appear to be making progress and which parts may be lagging behind.3 The report dives deep into specific technologies, lists the most active applicants in select technologies, and attempts to identify the impact of different governmental programs in specific sectors, with a goal of trying to help focus future innovation efforts.Read More
In August Congress passed the Inflation Reduction Act, a landmark climate and clean energy bill. Six months later, we’re asking: where are we now?Read More
Originally published in the Oil, Gas & Energy Resources Law Section Report – Volume 47, Number 1 / January 2023.
Reactive power provides synchronous and non-synchronous generators, as well as other forms of non-generation resources capable of providing reactive power, with a potential additional revenue stream. The provision of voltage support to the grid is an ancillary service, compensated in various ways in the various wholesale electricity markets. Renewable developers should familiarize themselves with the opportunities provided by reactive power compensation, even as some of the compensation models may be shifting.Read More
U.S. Energy, Infrastructure, and Resources Alert
The US Treasury Department released a preliminary draft of Notice 2022-61 (the Notice) on 29 November 2022 and the final on 30 November 2022. Taxpayers now have 59 days to begin construction on qualified projects without causing those projects to be subject to the new prevailing wage and apprenticeship requirements. The U.S. Department of Labor also released companion FAQs on the prevailing wage and apprenticeship rules 29 November 2022. The Notice generally applies to credits under Code Sections 30C (alternative fuel infrastructure), 45Y (post-2024 electricity PTC), 48E (post-2024 electricity ITC), 45V (hydrogen PTC), 45 (current electricity PTC), 48 (current electricity ITC), 45Q (carbon capture), 45L (energy efficient homes), 45U (zero-emission nuclear power), 48C (advanced energy manufacturing facilities), and 179D (energy efficient commercial buildings), but the beginning of construction rules apply more narrowly.